Relative Clause Reduction

June 17, 2012


REDUCTION OF RELATIVE CLAUSES

Expressions of quantity in adjective clauses:

–>There are many people in this town. None of them was Born in Alaska.
–>There are many people in this town, none of whom was Born in Alaska.

–>There are a lot of things in this store. Most of them were made in China. 
–>There are a lot of things in this store, most of which were made in China.

This adjective clause pattern occurs with any expressions of quantity:

Some of, many of, most of, none of, two of, half of, both of, neither of, each of + whom/which/whose
A noun + of + which is sometimes an alternative to an adjective clause with whose.

–>She has a computer. The processor of it is a Pentium.
–>She has a computer, the processor of which is a Pentium. (1)

–>She has a computer. Its processor is a Pentium.
–>She has a computer whose processor is a Pentium. (2)

(1) and (2) have the same meaning. 

Changing an adjective clause to an adjective phrase :

Only adjective clauses that have a subject pronoun (who, which, that) are reduced to modify an adjective clause. In this case, there is no difference in meaning between the adjective clause and adjective phrase.

There are two ways to change an adjective clause to an adjective phrase. Both the subject pronoun and the be form of the verb are omitted:

–>The car which is left on the street is broken. (Adjective clause)
–>The car left on the street is broken. (Adjective phrase)

If there is no be form of a verb in the adjective clause, it is sometimes possible to omit the subject pronoun and change the verb to its -ing form:

–>The man who came yesterday knows how to repair the faucet.
–>The man coming yesterday knows how to repair the faucet. 

If the adjective clause requires commas, the adjective phrase also requires commas. 

–>The man, who was waiting for you, comes from Arizona. 
–>The man, waiting for you, comes from Arizona.

A participle (~ing or ~ed) can often be used instead of a relative pronoun and full verb.

  • The teacher punishes anyone breaking the rules. (=…anyone who breaks rules.)
  • I live in a building having forty storeys. (=….building which has forty…)
  • The house painted in red is where John lives. (= The house which is painted in red….)
  • People invited are expected to be formally dressed for the occasion. (= People who areinvited …..)
 
 
referensi :
 

 http://www.testyourenglish.net/english-online/subjects/relreduct.html

Relative Clause Reduction

June 17, 2012


REDUCTION OF RELATIVE CLAUSES

Expressions of quantity in adjective clauses:

–>There are many people in this town. None of them was Born in Alaska.
–>There are many people in this town, none of whom was Born in Alaska.

–>There are a lot of things in this store. Most of them were made in China. 
–>There are a lot of things in this store, most of which were made in China.

This adjective clause pattern occurs with any expressions of quantity:

Some of, many of, most of, none of, two of, half of, both of, neither of, each of + whom/which/whose
A noun + of + which is sometimes an alternative to an adjective clause with whose.

–>She has a computer. The processor of it is a Pentium.
–>She has a computer, the processor of which is a Pentium. (1)

–>She has a computer. Its processor is a Pentium.
–>She has a computer whose processor is a Pentium. (2)

(1) and (2) have the same meaning. 

Changing an adjective clause to an adjective phrase :

Only adjective clauses that have a subject pronoun (who, which, that) are reduced to modify an adjective clause. In this case, there is no difference in meaning between the adjective clause and adjective phrase.

There are two ways to change an adjective clause to an adjective phrase. Both the subject pronoun and the be form of the verb are omitted:

–>The car which is left on the street is broken. (Adjective clause)
–>The car left on the street is broken. (Adjective phrase)

If there is no be form of a verb in the adjective clause, it is sometimes possible to omit the subject pronoun and change the verb to its -ing form:

–>The man who came yesterday knows how to repair the faucet.
–>The man coming yesterday knows how to repair the faucet. 

If the adjective clause requires commas, the adjective phrase also requires commas. 

–>The man, who was waiting for you, comes from Arizona. 
–>The man, waiting for you, comes from Arizona.

A participle (~ing or ~ed) can often be used instead of a relative pronoun and full verb.

  • The teacher punishes anyone breaking the rules. (=…anyone who breaks rules.)
  • I live in a building having forty storeys. (=….building which has forty…)
  • The house painted in red is where John lives. (= The house which is painted in red….)
  • People invited are expected to be formally dressed for the occasion. (= People who areinvited …..)

 

Exercise 37 and Exercise 38

June 17, 2012

nama : Diah Mulyani

Npm : 10208364

 

Exercise 37 Relative Clauses

  1. The last record whose was produced because a gold record.
  2. Checking accounts whose require a minimum are very common now.
  3. The professor whose you spoke yesterday.
  4. John whose grades are has received a scholarship.
  5. Felipe bought a camera . Whose has three lenses.
  6. Frank is the man. Whose are going Frank for the office of treasurer.
  7. The doctor is eith a patient. Whose leg was broken.
  8. Jane is the women. Whose is going China next year.
  9. Janet wants a typewriter. Whose self corrects.
  10. This book whose I found last week contains some useful information.
  11. Mr. Bryant whose team has last the game.
  12. James wrote an article. Whose indicated.
  13. The director of the program. Whose graduated from is planning to ritire next year.
  14. This is the book. Whose I have been looking for all year.
  15. William whose brother is a lawyer.

 

 

Exercise  38 relative clause reduction

  1. George is the man chosen to represent the committee at the convention.
  2. all of the money accepted has already been released.
  3. The papers on the table belong to Patricia.
  4. The man brought to the police station confessed to the crime.
  5. The girl drinking coffee is Mary Allen.
  6. John’s wife, has written several papers on this subject.
  7. The man talking to the policeman is my uncle.
  8. The book on the top shelf is the one that I need.
  9. The number of student of students have been counted is quite high.
  10. 10. Leo Evans, cats in this restaurant every day 

In Causative

April 29, 2012

Nama : diah mulyani

Kelas : 4ea06

Npm : 10208364

 

Make

‘Make’ as a causative verb expresses the idea that the person requires another person to do something.

Construction Chart

Subject + Make + Person + Base Form of Verb

Examples:

Peter made her do her homework.
The teacher made the students stay after class.

Have

‘Have’ as a causative verb expresses the idea that the person wants something to be done for them. This causative verb is often used when speaking about various services. There are two forms of the causative verb ‘have’.

Construction Chart: Use 1

Subject + Have + Person + Base Form of Verb

Examples:

They had John arrive early.
She had her children cook dinner for her.

Construction Chart: Use 2 Subject + Have + Object + Past Participle

Examples:

I had my hair cut last Saturday.
She had the car washed at the weekend.

Note: This form is similar in meaning to the passive.

 

Referensi

http://esl.about.com/od/grammarstructures/a/causative.html

 

 

Exercise 36 : Causative Verbs

April 29, 2012

Nama : diah mulyani

Class  :4EA06

Npm  : 10208364

  1. The teacher made Juan leave the room.
  2. Tochiko had her car repaired by a mechanic.
  3. Ellen got Marvin type her paper.
  4. I made Jane called her friend on the telephone.
  5. We got our house painted last week.
  6. Dr.Byrd is having the students write ancomposition.
  7. The policemen made the suspect lie on the ground.
  8. Mark got his transcripts send to the University.
  9. Maria is getting her hair cut tomorrow.
  10. We will have to get the Dean sign this form.
  11. The teacher let Al leave the classroom.
  12. Maria got Ed wash the pipettes.
  13. She always has her car Fixed by the same mechanic.
  14. Gene got his book Published by a subsidy publisher.
  15. We have to help Janet Find her keys.

Cause Connectors

April 10, 2012
NAMA       : Diah Mulyani
Npm         :10208364
kelas        : 4ea06
 
Because  : Each of the following conjunctions introduces a clause stating cause (a reason). A clause by definition has a (subject + verb). The cause-clause may occur before or after the effect-clause.
     …..because + subject + verb

examples of questions

1.Anita went inside because it was raining.

2.Paul cannot go to the foot ballgame because his grades.

3.Putri was awarded a scholarship because her superior scholastic ability.

4.Joy was worried because it had started to rain.

 

Because of : Each of these preposition-like expressions introduces a clause  stating cause (a reason). The preposition is followed by noun  or pronoun. The cause- clause may occur before or after the effect-clause     

     ……because of + noun (phrase)

examples of questions

1.We decided to leave early because of the party is boring.

2.The students arrived late because of the traffic jam.

3.The school were closed because of snow.

4.I was late because of you. 

Referensi

http://bunda-agadan.blogspot.com/2011/04/persiapan-toefl-latihan-structure-skill.html

http://www.grammar-quizzes.com/8-10.html

fhonna.blog.binusian.org/

kamus inggris Indonesia john m.Echols dan Hassan shadily

Exercise 31-34

April 9, 2012

Exercise 31

    1. Sam’s new apartment is in a twelve story building
    2. We are language teachers.
    3. My parents saw a in three act  play last night .
    4. The manager said that it would be a two day sale.
    5. Hal bought a 79 piece contain tool set.
    6. Margie has a five shelve bookcase.
    7. I need two 16 ounce cans of tomatoes.
    8. I’m looking for a holds six quart pressure cooker.
    9. He is a specialist at building made brick house
    10. Mrs. Jansen just bought her daughter a ten speed bicycle.

Exercise 32

    1. there were not enough people to have the meeting.
    2. Allen has learned French enough to study in France.
    3. Do you have enough time to talk now?
    4. She drove fast enough to win the race.
    5. Mike will graduate from law school soon enough to join his father’s firm.
    6. We arrived early enough to have some coffee before class begin.
    7. It the rained enough hard to flood the low- lying areas.
    8. You should type slowly enough that you will not make an error.
    9. He has just enough flour to bake that loaf of bread.
    10. There are enough books for each student to have one.

Exercise 33

    1. It was difficult to deliver the letter because of the sender written the wrong address on the envelope.
    2. We decide to leave early because of the party was boring.
    3. Rescue attempts were temporarily halted because of the bad weather.
    4. They visited their friends often because the enjoyed their company.
    5. Paul cannot go to the football game  because his grades.
    6. Marcella was awarded a scholarship because her superior scholastic ability.
    7. Nobody ventured outdoors because of the hurricane warnings.
    8. We plan to spend our vacation in the mountains because of the air is purer there.
    9. We have to drive around the bay because of the bridge was destroyed in the strom.
    10. The chickens have died because of the intense heat.

Exercise 34

    1. The sun shone so brightly that Maria had to put on her sunglasses.
    2. Dean was such a powerful swimmer that he always won the races.
    3. There were so few students registered that the class was cancelled.
    4. We had so wonderful memories of that place that we decided to return.
    5. We had so good a time at the party that we hated to leave.
    6. The benefit was so great a success that the promoters decided to repeat it.
    7. It was such a nice day that we decided to go to the beach.
    8. Jane looked  so sick that the nurse told her to go home.
    9. Those were so difficult assignments that we spent two weeks finishing time.
    10. Ray called at such an early hour that we weren’t a wake yet.
    11. The book looked so interesting that he decided to read it.
    12. He worked so carefully that it took him a long time to complete the project.
    13. We stayed in the sun for such a long time that we became sunburned.
    14. There were so many people on the bus that we decided to walk.
    15. The program was so entertaining that nobody wanted to miss it.

tulisan bahasa inggris 2

March 18, 2012

Kata sifat (adjective) adalah untuk menerangkan sifat dari kata benda.

Adjective ( kata sifat ).

Ada enam jenis kata sifat :

  • Proper adjective (kata sifat nama diri)
  • Descriptive adjective (kata sifat deskriptif)
  • Quantitative adjective (kata sifat kuantitatif)
  • Numeral adjective (kata sifat numeral)
  • Demonstrative adjective (kata sifat demonstratif)
  • Distributive adjective (kata sifat distributif)

Referensi

http://aneneharief.wordpress.com/adjectives-dan-adverbs/

Tugas Bahasa Inggris Bisnis 2

March 18, 2012

Exercise 21

  1. Henry talks to his dog as it if understand him
  2. If they had left the house earlier, they would have  so late getting to the airport that they could not check their baggage.
  3. If I finish the dress before Saturday, I will give it to my sister for her birthday.
  4. If I had seen the movie, I would tell you about it last night.
  5. Had Bob not interfered in his sister’s marital problems, they were being peace between them.
  6. He would give you the money if he were having it
  7. I wish they had stepped making so much noise so that I could concentrate
  8. She would call you immediately if she would need help.
  9. Had they arrived at the sale early, they would have found.
  10. We hope that you could enjoy the party last night.
  11. If you have enough time, please has paint the chair before you leave.
  12. We could go for a drive if today where be Saturday.
  13. If she wins the prize, it will be because the would have written very well.
  14. Mike wished that the editors were permitting him to copy some of their material.
  15. Joel wishes that he could spend his vacation on the gulf coast next year.
  16. I will accept them if they invite me to the party.
  17. If your mother would buy that car for you, will you be happy?
  18. If he had decide earlier, he could have left on the afternoon flight.
  19. Had we known your address, we would have written you a letter.
  20. If the roofer doesn’t come soon, the rain will leak inside.
  21. Because Rose did so poorly on the exam, she wishes that she could have studied harder last night.
  22. My dog always wakes me up if he has heard strange noises.
  23. If you see mary today, please ask her to call me.
  24. If he have got the raise, it will be because he does a good job.
  25. The teacher will not accept our work if we would have turned it in late.
  26. Mrs. Wood always talks to her tenth-grade students as though they will be adults.
  27. If he had left already, he would have called us.
  28. If they had known him, they would have talked to him.
  29. He would understand it if you will have explain it to him more slowly.
  30. I could understand the French teacher if she can have spoken more slowly.                                                                                                                                                                         exercise 22                                                                                                                            
  1. I was used to eating at noon when I started school.
  2. He used to eating dinner at five o’clock
  3. When I was young, I used to swim every day.
  4. He used to like her, but he doesn’t anymore.
  5. Don’t worry. Some day you will get used to speaking English.
  6. Alvaro can’t get used to studying.
  7. He used to dance every night, but now he studies.
  8. Adam is used to sleeping late on weekends.
  9. Chieko is used to eating American food now.
  10. She finally got used to eating our food.

exercise 26

  1. Rita plays well the violin.
  2. That is an intense novel.
  3. The sun is brightly shining.
  4. The girl speak fluent French.
  5. The boys speak Spanish fluently.
  6. The table has a smoothly surface.
  7. We must accurate figure our income tax returns.
  8. We don’t like to drink tea.
  9. The plane will arrive soon.
  10. He had an accident because he was driving too fast.

Exercise 27

  1. Your cold sounds terribly.
  2. The paint plays very well.
  3. The food in the restaurant always tastes good.
  4. The campers remained calmly despite the thunderstorm.
  5. They became sick after eating the contaminated food.
  6. Professor Calandra looked quickly at the students’ sketches.
  7. Paco was working diligent on the project.
  8. Paul protested vehement about the new proposals.\
  9. Our neighbors appeared relaxed after their vacation.
  10. The music sounded too noisy to be classical.

exercise 28

  1. John and his friends left as soon as the professor had finished his lecture.
  2. His job is more important than his friend’s.
  3. He plays the guitar better well as Andres Segovia.
  4. A new house is much more expensive than an older one.
  5. Last week was better hot as this week.
  6. Martha is more talented than her cousin.
  7. Bill’s descriptions are more colorfull than his wife’s.
  8. Nobody is most happy than Maria Elena.
  9. The boys left bettr=er bad then the girls about losing the game.
  10. A greyhound runs more fast than a Chihuahua.

exercise 29

  1. The empire State Building is taller than the Statue of Liberty.
  2. California is farther from New York As Pennsylvania.
  3. His assignment is different From mine.
  4. Louise reads more quickly As his sisters.
  5. No animal is so big better King kong.
  6. That report is less impressive From the government’s.
  7. Sam wears the same shirt From his teammates.
  8. Dave paints much more realistically Better his professor.
  9. The twin have less money at the end of the month better they have at beginning.
  10. Her sports car is different As Nancy’s

 Exercise 30

  1. Of the four dresses, I like the red one better.
  2. Phil is the happiest person that we know.
  3. Pat’s car is faster than Dan’s.
  4. This is the creamiest ice cream I have had in a long time.
  5. This poster is more colorful than the one in the hall.
  6. Does fred feel better today than he did yesterday.
  7. This vegetable soup tastes very good.
  8. While trying to balance the baskets on her head , the woman walked more awkwardly than her daughter.
  9. Jane is the least athletic of all the women.
  10. My cat is the prettier of the two.
  11. The summary is the best of the pair.
  12. Your heritage is different from mine.
  13. This painting is less impressive than the one in the other gallery.
  14. The colder the weather gets, the sicker I feel.
  15. No sooner had he received the letter than he called Maria.
  16. A mink coat costs twice more than a sable coat.
  17. Jim has as few opportunities to play tennis as I.
  18. That recipe calls for much more sugar than mine does.
  19. The museum is the farthest away of the three buildings.
  20. George Washington is famous than John Jay.

contoh perusahaan monopoli

January 9, 2012

Nama    : Diah Mulyani

kelas      : 4ea06

Npm     : 10208364

1.contoh perusahaan monopoli adalah microsoft windows, perusahaan listrik negara (PLN), perusahaan kereta api (PT.KAI).

2.analisis monopoli menurut etika bisnis

suatu situasi dalam pasar dimana hanya ada satu atau segelintir perusahaan yang menjual produk atau komoditas tertentu yang tidak punya pengganti yang mirip dan ada hambatan bagi perusahaan atau pengusaha lain untuk masuk dalam bidan industri atau bisnis tersebut. Dengan kata lain, pasar dikuasai oleh satu atau segelintir perusahaan, sementara pihak lain sulit masuk didalamnya. Karena itu, hampir tidak ada persaingan berarti yang menjual produk atau komoditas tertentu yang tidak punya pengganti yang mirip dan ada hambatan bagi perusahaan atau pengusaha lain untuk masuk dalam bidang industri atau bisnis tersebut.

3.contoh kasus

krisis listrik memuncak saat PT. Perusahaan Listrik Negara (PT. PLN) memberlakukan pemadaman listrik secara bergiliran di berbagai wilayah termasuk Jakarta dan sekitarnya, selama periode 11-25 Juli 2008. Hal ini diperparah oleh pengalihan jam operasional kerja industri ke hari Sabtu dan Minggu, sekali sebulan. Semua industri di Jawa-Bali wajib menaati, dan sanksi bakal dikenakan bagi industri yang membandel. Dengan alasan klasik, PLN berdalih pemadaman dilakukan akibat defisit daya listrik yang semakin parah karena adanya gangguan pasokan batubara pembangkit utama di sistem kelistrikan Jawa-Bali, yaitu di pembangkit Tanjung Jati, Paiton Unit 1 dan 2, serta Cilacap. Namun, di saat yang bersamaan terjadi juga permasalahan serupa untuk pembangkit berbahan bakar minyak (BBM) PLTGU Muara Tawar dan PLTGU Muara Karang.
Dikarenakan PT. PLN memonopoli kelistrikan nasional, kebutuhan listrik masyarakat sangat bergantung pada PT. PLN, tetapi mereka sendiri tidak mampu secara merata dan adil memenuhi kebutuhan listrik masyarakat. Hal ini ditunjukkan dengan banyaknya daerah-daerah yang kebutuhan listriknya belum terpenuhi dan juga sering terjadi pemadaman listrik secara sepihak sebagaimana contoh diatas. Kejadian ini menyebabkan kerugian yang tidak sedikit bagi masyarakat, dan investor menjadi enggan untuk berinvestasi.

sumber

http://lppcommunity.wordpress.com/2009/01/08/etika-bisnis-monopoli-kasus-pt-perusahaan-listrik-negara/

-Bentuk-Bentuk Struktur Pasar Konsumen – Persaingan Sempurna, Monopolistik, Oligopoli dan Monopoli

( Herwanp,msi.etika.an.fisip.2009 )